Table 3: Results of Risk of bias evaluation.
|Author & Publication year||Random sequence generation (selection bias)||Allocation concealment (selection bias)||Blinding (performance bias and detection bias) All outcomes||Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias) All outcomes||Selective reporting (reporting bias)||Overall risk of bias|
|Drory, et al., 2001||Low risk - The institution statistician performed the randomization using computer software||Unclear risk - not reported||Unclear risk - blinding not reported||High risk - Both groups lost a lot of people- reasons for drop outs not reported - numbers are||Low risk - All outcomes reported||Unclear risk|
|Dal Bello-Haas, et al., 2007||Low risk - random sequence reported||Low risk - Opaque envelopes with group allocation used; note that participants were not blind to group allocation and some revealed their allocation to therapist collecting data||Low risk - Participants completing intervention were unblinded; outcome evaluators were blinded to group allocation||Low risk - Participants were lost to follow up in both groups- reasons clearly stated and missing data were imputed for analyses||Low risk - All outcomes reported||Low risk|
|Creemers, et al., 2013||Low risk - All ALS teams were invited to participate; teams were matched||Low risk - Allocation concealment was at the cluster level||Low risk - blinded outcome evaluators at all follow-up times||Low risk - Although they lost quite a few participants from both groups, the losses are explained and many were because of death||Low risk - All outcomes reported||Low risk|
|Jensen, et al., 2005 Note: Data presented does not clearly identify people with ALS||Low risk - People with neurodegenerative conditions were allowed to complete the survey||Low risk - Limited restrictions on who could participate on the survey||Low risk - No outcomes based on performance, all self-report measures||Low risk - Onetime survey therefore no attrition||Low risk - data on all outcomes reported||Low risk|
|Korner, et al., 2013||Low risk - Participant selection mentioned||Low risk - Groups assigned based on allocation||Low risk - all outcome measures are self-report||Low risk - data collected when patients visited the clinic post-intervention||Unclear risk - Can’t identify dependent and independent variables in regression||Low risk|
|Van den Berg, et al., 2005||Unclear risk - No random selection and not clear how patients were recruited or selected||Unclear risk - not clear how allocations were determined||Low risk - nurses collecting outcome data blinded to treatment group||Unclear risk - no clear description of dropouts nor if patients were followed over time||Low risk - all outcome measures reported||Unclear risk|