Table 3: Results of Risk of bias evaluation.

Author & Publication year Random sequence generation (selection bias) Allocation concealment (selection bias) Blinding (performance bias and detection bias) All outcomes Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias) All outcomes Selective reporting (reporting bias) Overall risk of bias
Drory, et al., 2001 Low risk - The institution statistician performed the randomization using computer software Unclear risk - not reported Unclear risk - blinding not reported High risk - Both groups lost a lot of people- reasons for drop outs not reported - numbers are Low risk - All outcomes reported Unclear risk
Dal Bello-Haas, et al., 2007 Low risk - random sequence reported Low risk - Opaque envelopes with group allocation used; note that participants were not blind to group allocation and some revealed their allocation to therapist collecting data Low risk - Participants completing intervention were unblinded; outcome evaluators were blinded to group allocation Low risk - Participants were lost to follow up in both groups- reasons clearly stated and missing data were imputed for analyses Low risk - All outcomes reported Low risk
Creemers, et al., 2013 Low risk - All ALS teams were invited to participate; teams were matched Low risk - Allocation concealment was at the cluster level Low risk - blinded outcome evaluators at all follow-up times Low risk - Although they lost quite a few participants from both groups, the losses are explained and many were because of death Low risk - All outcomes reported Low risk
Jensen, et al., 2005 Note: Data presented does not clearly identify people with ALS Low risk - People with neurodegenerative conditions were allowed to complete the survey Low risk - Limited restrictions on who could participate on the survey Low risk - No outcomes based on performance, all self-report measures Low risk - Onetime survey therefore no attrition Low risk - data on all outcomes reported Low risk
Korner, et al., 2013 Low risk - Participant selection mentioned Low risk - Groups assigned based on allocation Low risk - all outcome measures are self-report Low risk - data collected when patients visited the clinic post-intervention Unclear risk - Can’t identify dependent and independent variables in regression Low risk
Van den Berg, et al., 2005 Unclear risk - No random selection and not clear how patients were recruited or selected Unclear risk - not clear how allocations were determined Low risk - nurses collecting outcome data blinded to treatment group Unclear risk - no clear description of dropouts nor if patients were followed over time Low risk - all outcome measures reported Unclear risk