Table 1: Description and results of the included reviews.

Article Title



Name of Journal or Magazine

Methods used in the study

Significant outcomes

Characterization of sexual violence against children and adolescents in school – Brazil, 2010-2014

Santos, Mascarenhas, Rodrigues, Monteiro


Epidemiologia e Serviços de Saúde

Descriptive study of cases of sexual violence using data from the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN)

The proportion of female victims (77.1%) and those with black skin color (56.5%) was significantly higher among adolescents (p < 0.001). The cases of rape (70.9%; p < 0.001) and sexual harassment (33.4%; p = 0.014) were more frequent among adolescents, while the notifications of indecent assault prevailed among children (24.1%; p < 0.001)

The incidence of sexual violence among children and adolescents in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, in 2012 and 2013

Sena, Silva, Neto.


Ciência e saúde coletiva

Descriptive, retrospective study using data from the Antônio Persivo Cunha Institute of Forensic Medicine

Rape was significant (p < 0.001) when associated with the age group between 10 and 14-years-old, female sex (95.6%) and an acquaintance of the victim, and sexual abuse not involving rape (p < 0.001) was positively associated with the 5-9 year-old age group, female sex and a family member as the most frequent perpetrator (92.1%)

Sexual violence against children: Authors, victims and consequences

Platt, Back, Hauschild, Guedert


Ciência e Saúde coletiva

Cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study with secondary data from SINAN

The impact of CSA on the mental health of victims stands out, since four (1%) of these attempted suicides; five (1.3%) developed mental disorder; 90 (22.4%) evidenced behavioral disorders; and 77 (20.0%) had posttraumatic stress disorders

Evolução da notificação de violência sexual no Brasil de 2009 a 2013

Gaspar & Pereira


Cadernos de Saúde Pública

Observational time series study using data of the national base of SINAN

There was an increase in notification of sexual violence in relation to all variables. Rape cases were the most frequent within the analyzed period, going from 54.61% in 2009 to 74.39% in 2013

Factors associated with reporting delays and severity of childhood sexual abuse in São Paulo, Brazil

Vertamatti, et al.


Psychology, Health & Medicine

Cross-sectional analysis, using secondary data obtained from medical records of the PAVAS of São Bernardo do Campo

Sexual abuse was prolonged among children whose mothers had eight or more years of formal education (PR = 1.65). The time between abuse and reporting was longer when the perpetrator lived in the same household as the child, and when the abuse was reported by a relative or friend

Prevalence of sexual violence in Brazil: Associated individual and contextual factors

da Silva & Roncalli


International Journal of Public Health

A multilevel analysis performed with cross-sectional data from 2010

Sexual violence is more prevalent in federal units that presented lower years of schooling expectancy at 18-years-old (PR 1.27; CI 95% 1.09-1.48), lower per capita income (PR 1.23; CI 95% 1.05-1.43), lower HDI (PR 1.17; CI 95% 1.01-1.37), higher proportion of poverty vulnerability (PR 1.18; CI 95% 1.02-1.38), higher proportion of unemployment (PR 1.68; CI 95% 1.45-1.96) and higher proportion of people who neither work nor study (PR 1.26; CI 95% 1.08-1.46)

Factors associated with violence against children in sentinel urgent and emergency care centers in Brazilian capitals

Malta, Bernal, Teixeira, Silva, Freitas


Ciência e saúde coletiva

Cross-sectional study conducted using the 2014 VIVA survey data

Victims were predominantly male. The most common form of violence was neglect/abandonment, followed by physical violence and sexual violence. The most common perpetrators were parents (ages zero to one and two to five years), followed by friends (ages six to nine years). The most common place of occurrence was the home

Factors associated with child sexual abuse confirmation at forensic examinations

Silva, et al.


Ciência e saúde coletiva

Cross-sectional, retrospective study using the forensic files of the Nina Rodrigues Institute of Forensic Medicine

In 10.4% of the cases, the forensic physician was able to confirm the sexual abuse based on material evidence (95% CI: 8.4-12.7) In the final model, a report of penetration was associated with a five-fold greater likelihood of sexual abuse confirmation. When the victim was 10 to 11 years of age (pre-adolescent) rather than younger, there was a two-fold greater likelihood of the sexual abuse being confirmed in the forensic examination

Gender and generation perspectives in the narratives of sexually abused women in childhood

Fornari, Sakata-so, Egry, Fonseca


Revista latino-americana de enfermagem

Descriptive research of a qualitative approach, based on reports from the users of Twitter

The reports revealed that the aggressors expressed desire for the female body during the childhood of the victims and their adolescence was the moment for the consummation of that desire. Domestic environment is a frequent place for the occurrence of sexual abuse. Violations generally occurred in situations understood as caring and affection. The reports show that sexual abuse in childhood consisted of a traumatic experience that had many repercussions in the life of the participants

Prevalence of sexual violence and associated factors among primary school students - Brazil, 2015

Santos, Mascarenhas, Malta, Lima, Silva


Ciência e saúde coletiva

Cross-sectional study, with data from the National School Health Survey (PeNSE) conducted in 2015

Sexual violence among school-age adolescents was associated with characteristics such as: Age of < 13-years-old; female; black skin color; working; being assaulted by family members; having insomnia; feeling lonely; not having friends; consuming tobacco/alcohol regularly; having tried drugs; having started sexual activity; feeling insecure on the way to or at school; and having suffered bullying

Childhood and adolescent sexual abuse, victim profile and its impacts on mental health

Fontes, Conceição, Machado


Ciência e Saúde Coletiva

Microdata of the National School Health Survey 2015 was used, applying the methodology of Propensity Score Matching

Abused youngsters are more likely to have used illicit drugs (OR = 2.15), alcohol (OR = 1.80) and have friends who have already done the same (OR = 1.02). They are twice more likely to have been bullied (OR = 2.09) and more likely to have an age-grade gap (OR = 1.20). Students report having less intention to go further than elementary school and are more likely to be working, which is indicated by the coefficients of ‘Future in school’ and ‘Employment’ (OR = 1.54)

Influence of childhood abuse and neglect subtypes on late-life suicide risk beyond depression

Behr Gomes Jardim, et al.


Child Abuse & Neglect

Cross-sectional study looking at a sample of 449 individuals 60-years-old or older from the Multidimensional Study of the Elderly of Porto Alegre Family Health Strategy, Brazil (EMI-SUS/POA)

In the multivariate analysis, controlling for age, gender, income, marital status, ethnicity, and smoking, all maltreatment subtypes remained associated with suicide risk (OR EA = 4.36; PA = 3.61; SA = 3.74; EN = 3.24; PN = 1.91; p ≤ 0.01). Individuals with three maltreatment subtypes reported were 5.66 times (p ≤ 0.01) more likely to present suicide risk than those with no maltreatment subtypes, and individuals with four maltreatment subtypes reported were 6.72 times (p ≤ 0.01) more likely to present suicide risk. Finally, those with five maltreatment subtypes were 10.76 (p ≤ 0.01) times more likely to experience suicide risk. Depressive symptoms and each maltreatment subtype dimension individually predicted suicide risk (Depressive Symptoms OR 5.11, CI 2.72-9.58, p ≤ 0.001)

“A boy, being a victim, nobody really buys that, you know?”: Dynamics of sexual violence against boys

Hohendorff, Habigzang, Koller


Child Abuse & Neglect

Interviews were conducted with four male victims of sexual abuse between the ages of six and 10, as well as four psychologists employed in the health care system and involved in the treatment of sexually abused boys

Proximity between victims and offenders, who were mostly adolescent boys, was a facilitator of abuse. Victims faced significant levels of disbelief and discrimination

Childhood sexual abuse, intimate partner violence during pregnancy, and posttraumatic stress symptoms following childbirth: A path analysis

Oliveira, Reichenheim, Moraes, Howard, Lobato


Arch Womens Ment Health

Cross-sectional study at a maternity service for women at high risk for fetal and neonatal complications in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

CSA are strongly and positively linked to PTSD symptoms, which indicates a substantial indirect connection between CSA and the outcome. The direct path from CSA to PTSD symptoms had a borderline significance (p = 0.066)

Child Sexual Abuse Confirmed by Forensic Examination in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

Silva & Barroso Jr.


The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology

Retrospective, cross-sectional descriptive study

In 94% of the cases, the reason for carrying out the forensic examination was a report of sexual abuse. Less than 1% of the aggressors were female. A ruptured hymen was the finding that confirmed sexual abuse in 172 cases, corresponding to 83% of cases in girls. There were 2 cases of pregnancy. Recent anal or perianal lesions were present in 35 (87.5%) of the confirmed cases involving boys