Table 1: Gagne's events of instruction elicited during tactful Ps & Qs game.

Gagne's nine events of instruction Illustration of how students demonstrated the events of instruction during the Tactful Ps & Qs game
Gains attention Gained the attention of the students due to the novelty and "real world" aspect of the game. Students continued engagement past the end of the designated class period.
Provides a learning objective Students understood the explicit and implicit objectives of the game and constructed meaning throughout the game that relate to the course content and objectives.
Stimulates recall of prior knowledge Students recalled prior learning throughout the game for OTPF, and course concepts.
Presents the material in chunks Integration of the core course concepts in the cases facilitated selective application and integration by all students engaged in the game in some capacity.
Provides guidance for learning Guidance facilitated accurate responses for mastery and additional higher-level responses from classmates by providing additional thought provoking questions and scenarios related to the case utilized in the gaming session.
Elicits performance The game elicited verbal responses to the game case based question cards related to the OTPF. Responses depicted their level of understanding of the case and the OTPF.
Provides feedback Verbal feedback given throughout the game related to their responses. Additional scenarios or questions evoked higher-level responses.
Assesses performance Performance assesses throughout the game with feedback and additional verbal suggestions given. The game allowed all students to see content areas that they not mastered.
Enhances retention and transfer of knowledge Enhancement of retention and transfer of knowledge to the cases and real world practice achieved throughout the game through discussions elicited. Pre and post-test scores also validated the retention and transfer of knowledge to the questions related to the plan of care and the OTPF.

Table notes [19]