Table 1: Cross-cultural studies reviewed: characteristics and classification.

Study Aims Classification Sample IA Instrument Results
Zhang, et al. [10] To explore IA among university students in China and the US to develop a better understanding of IA in a cross-national setting. CONT/P/S/SS N = 340 university students; nUS = 171, nChinese = 143; US: 51% females, mean age 22 ± 3.43; Chinese: 60% females, mean age 20 ± 1.34. Ad-hoc questionnaire: demographic information, 10 IA symptoms, and a 28-item instrument measuring IA (Wang, [11]) Chinese students experience a higher rate of Internet addiction than their U.S. counterparts. Gender was significantly related to IA for both samples. IA may result as an artifact of the stage of Internet adoption within a society.
Hart, et al. [12] To compared a sample of American adolescents with a Spanish sample on a measure of video game addiction. CONT/M/D/SS N = 790 nadolescent = 204; female/male: 15%/85%, range age: 14-18; ncollege_students = 262, female/male: 77%/23%, range age: 18-23; nadults = 324; female/male: 63%/17%; range age: 23-55. Ad-hoc scale: Computer/Video Game Behavior Inventory (CVGBI) embedding the Problem Video Game Playing (PVP; Salguero & Morán, [13]) It is supported the PVP and a similarity between the Spanish and American samples but not for relationships between the PVP and assessments of distress in areas of daily functioning.
Karl, et al. [14] To examine culture and personality differences in student reports of the likelihood that they would post various types of information on their Facebook profiles. CONT/P/S/SS N = 1116 adults; female/male: 782/334; mean age in US: 20.5, and in Germany: 21.5 Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS, 2010; Meerkerk, van den Eijnden, Franken & Garretsen, [15]) Those high on conscientiousness, agreeableness, and emotional stability proved less likely to report posting problematic contenton their profile. Those who scored high on CIUS indicated a greater likelihood to post such profile information. US students were more inclined than Germans to post problematic information to their Facebook site.
Durkee, et al. [16] To investigate the prevalence of pathological internet use (PIU) and maladaptive internet use (MIU) among adolescents in 11 European countries in relation to demographic, social factors and internet accessibility. COUNT/P/S/LS N = 11956 adolescents; female/male: 6731/5225; mean age: 14.9 ± 0.89 Young Diagnostic Questionnaire for Internet Addiction (YDQ; Young [17]) The overall prevalence of PIU was 4.4%; it was higher among males than females and differed between countries. PIU correlated significantly with mean hour's online, male gender and living in urban areas. Lacking emotional and psychological support are at highest risk.
Yang, et al. [18] To compare risk factors for PIU among Japanese and Chinese university students COUNT/P/S/SS N = 503 first year university students: nJapanese = 267, nChinese = 236; female/male: 151/352, Japanese: 176/91 and Chinese 176/60; mean age: 14.9 ± 0.89, Japanese mean age 18.8 (17-24) and Chinese 19.4 (17-22) Internet Addiction Test (IAT; Young, [19,20]) Japanese participants were more likely to demonstrate PIU than their Chinese counterparts. The PIU group had a higher depression score compared to the normal Internet use group, consisted of more male and Japanese participants. PIU is associated with depression, negative self-image, and parental relations (perceived mother's care).
Sariyska, et al. [21] To replicate a cross-cultural approach on negative association between IA and the personality trait of self-directedness in Bulgaria, Germany, Spain, Colombia, China, Taiwan and Sweden and as well the finding that persons with a damaged self-esteem have a higher proclivity for becoming Internet addicted in Bulgaria, Spain, Germany and Colombia. CONT/P/S/SS N = 989 adults; nBulgaria = 163, female/male: 126/37, meanage: 28.27 ± 12.11; nSpain = 126,female/male: 126/104, meanage: 23.59 ± 6.59; nGermany = 122, female/male: 91/31, meanage: 23.08 ± 5.66; nColombia = female/male: 64/16, meanage: 29.64 ± 10.97; nChina 1 = 344, female/male: 60/284, meanage: 19.92 ± 3.8; nChina 2 = 51, female/male: 28/23, meanage: 24.98 ± 2.94; nTaiwan = 60, female/male: 37/23, meanage: 31.88 ± 9.06; nSweden = 43, female/male: 21/22, meanage: 24.86 ± 5.66. IAT (Young [20]) Personality dimension self-directedness was negatively correlated to the IA score of the participants in all samples. In contrast, no interaction effect between implicit and explicit self-esteem on IA could be observed
Quinones - Garcia, et al. [22] To confirm that prevalence figures including the core dimensions of compulsive Internet use (CIU) were lower than those including the engagement dimensions as well. To test the role that self-concept clarity (SCC) and social support play in predicting core CIU in US subjects. To show the association between SCC and core CIU would be weak in the Eastern culture sample (UAE). CONT/P/S/SS N = 538 adults, female/male: 281/257; nUS = 268, female/male: 134/134, mean age: 45 ± 2.3; nUAE = 270, female/male: 147/123, mean age: 41 ± 9.3. CIUS (Meerkerk et al. [15]), including 2 tolerance items (created by Quinones-Garcia, et al. [23]) It is confirmed that prevalence figures were 20 - 40% lower when including the core dimensions only, and that SCC is a key predictor of CIU at low levels of social support in the US. Also was confirmed that this is not the case in the UAE.
Kononova, et al. [24] To explore how media and audience factors, such as country of residence, media ownership, polychronicity, or the preference to do multiple things at the same time, predict media multitasking behaviors and if different motivations to multitask mediate the effects of these factors between US and Taiwan CONT/P/S/LS N = 1972 from the US and Taiwan; nUS = 1040, female/male: 44%/47%, mean age: 35 ± 10.30; nTaiwan = 932, female/male: 147/123, mean age: 41 ± 9.3. Eighteen statements were derived from previous literature (Bardhi et al. [25]) to measure five motivations: control, efficiency,entertainment, connection, and addiction. The findings indicated that media ownership, polychronicity, and four motivations (control, entertainment, connection, and addiction) positively predicted media multitasking behaviors. US were higher polychronics and heavier multitaskers than their Taiwanese counterparts. Taiwanese polychronicity and motivations increased the effects of media ownership on media multitasking, while in US, polychronicity contributed little to the effect of media ownership, and the mediating role of motivations decreased with the increase in the level of polychronicity