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Research Article  |   Volume 2, Issue 2

Characterization of Human Influenza Viruses Propagated by Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Cells or Embryonated Eggs

Ewan P Plant, Laura Couzens, Samuel Mindaye, Elizabeth M Coyle, Surender Khurana, Hang Xie, Hana Golding, Maryna C Eichelberger and Zhiping Ye
Abstract

The hemagglutination assay is a commonly used method to titer influenza virus. It relies on the interaction between virus particles and red blood cells being sufficient to prevent the settling of the blood cells. During additional assessment of human influenza virus stocks titrated by the hemagglutination assay we noted that virus grown in cell culture had a greater number of virus particles than analogous virus grown in eggs. Virus grown in both egg and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells are used for vaccine strain selection and to study antigenic variants by serological assays so it is important to know about any differences in the viruses used in the assays.

PDF   |    Full Text | DOI: 10.23937/2469-567X/1510014

Research Article  |   Volume 2, Issue 2

Salviae and Cinnamomi Herbal Medicines have Antiviral Activity against a Broad Range of Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Fu-Shi Quan, Young Jae Lee, Richard W Compans and Sang-Moo Kang
Abstract

Development of broadly effective anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 compounds is a high priority since the number of individuals having HIV infections continues to grow worldwide and vaccines are not available yet. From herbal extracts commonly used in humans, Salviae miltiorrhiza (Salviae), Cinnamomi Ramulus (Cinnamomi), Astragali Radix (Astragali), Asari Radix et Rhizome (Asari), Panax Ginseng (Korean red ginseng), we screened candidate herbal medicines and investigated their antiviral activity against a broad range of HIV-1 strains including clades A and C primary isolates that are dominantly found in Africa and India.

PDF   |    Full Text | DOI: 10.23937/2469-567X/1510013

Research Article  |   Volume 2, Issue 2

Impact of Human T-Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV I/II) Diagnosis on the Frequency of Mood Disorders in a Non-Endemic Area

Sergio Monteiro de Almeida, Meri Bordignon Nogueira, Rafaela Miravalhes, Thiago Mestre, Francisco Jaime Barbosa, Marise Zonta, Gabriel Santos Schafer, Indaiara Felisbino, Suzana Carstensen, Ana Cristina Medeiros, Indianara Rotta, Mirian Pelegrino Beltrame, Sonia Mara Raboni and Luine Rosele Vidal
Abstract

Chronic diseases cause different impact to different people. We performed this study to evaluate the impact of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV I/II) diagnosis on the frequency of mood disorders. Of six HTLV I/II infected patients, including one asymptomatic, four reported depression at the moment of HTLV diagnosis. The findings reveal that it is crucial to inform patients of the HTLV diagnosis only after conducting confirmatory tests, as indicated by majority of diagnosis protocols. Usually countries with limited resources and a high prevalence of HTLV I/II infections do not perform confirmatory tests, including Brazil.

PDF   |    Full Text | DOI: 10.23937/2469-567X/1510012

Research Article  |   Volume 2, Issue 2

Exposure to HIV-1 Altered CCR7-Mediated Migration of Monocytes: Regulation by PGE2

Sandra C Cote, Stamatoula Pasvanis and Nancy Dumais
Abstract

Transmission and pathogenesis of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1) are interconnected during all stages of the disease with cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Monocytes are constantly exposed or are targets of HIV-1 and their migratory behaviors are implicated in the dissemination of the infection throughout the host. Monocytes arising from quiescent and infected cells of the myeloid precursor lineage in bone marrow have been demonstrated as a source of residual HIV DNA.

PDF   |    Full Text | DOI: 10.23937/2469-567X/1510011

Commentary  |   Volume 2, Issue 2

Codon Usage as a Possible Source of Sofosbuvir Genetic Resistance Bias in HCV Patients Infected with Different Genotypes

Carlos Campayo, Antonio Mas and Rosario Sabariegos
Abstract

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is responsible for liver chronic infections that in a high percentage of cases lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In the past, treatment consisted on a combination of pegylated interferon plus ribavirin. However, since 2012 a new wave in treatment options appears with the new family of drugs targeting viral components, the so-called direct-acting antivirals. Now we have a battery of drugs directed against viral protease (NS3/4A), polymerase (NS5B), and viral NS5A protein.

PDF   |    Full Text | DOI: 10.23937/2469-567X/1510010


Volume 2
Issue 2