Original Article Open Access

Eicosapentaenoic Acid Decreases Histamine Receptor 1 Expression on Lung Microvascular Endothelial Cells and Cell Permeability during LPS Stimulation

Takaaki Osako, Michiko Aoyama-Ishikawa, Hayato Yamashita, Makoto Usami, Atsunori Nakao and Joji Kotani
Int J Respir Pulm Med Volume 1, Issue 1

Abstract: Introduction: During acute lung inflammation, the lung microvasculature becomes hyperpermeable, resulting in immune cell infiltration and tissue edema. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), when used as a supplement in parenteral nutrition, can attenuate Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury. In this study, we examined the effects n-3 PUFAs on lung microvascular cell permeability. Material and methods: Human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-L) were seeded on fibronectin-coated transwell inserts. The cells were pretreated with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (n-3 PUFAs), and then treated with LPS (1μg/mL) to simulate acute lung injury. Microvascular permeability was assessed by monitoring the movement of FITCalbumin from the upper chamber to the lower chamber.

PDF   | Full Text   DOI: 10.23937/2378-3516/1410007

Case Report Open Access

Infective Endarteritis in a Patent Ductus Arteriosus

John Fani Srour
Int J Respir Pulm Med Volume 1, Issue 1

Abstract: The ductus arteriosus, an essential fetal structure, normally closes spontaneously soon after birth. It's persistence into late adulthood is considered rare; infective endarteritis complicating a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is an even rarer event. The clinical picture of an infected PDA could be subtle, and the diagnosis is frequently delayed. Symptoms may well be attributed to community acquired pneumonia, pleurisy, or pulmonary infarction from pulmonary embolism. Occasionally, especially in the case of silent PDA, the correct diagnosis can be reached after an extensive work up of fever of unknown origin. The current case illustrates this uncommon presentation and highlights the role of echocardiography along with other imaging modalities in identifying an infected PDA.

PDF   | Full Text   DOI: 10.23937/2378-3516/1410006

Case Report Open Access

The Differential Diagnosis of Asthma: Endobronchial Pulmonary Mesenchymoma

Mehmet Unlu, Pinar Cimen, Nuran Katgi and Salih Zeki Guclu
Int J Respir Pulm Med Volume 1, Issue 1

Abstract: A variety of airway tumours are reported to manifest with symptoms similar to those of asthma and may cause delays in exact diagnosis because of the increase in size at a slow rate. Pulmonary endobronchial mesenchymoma is one of the slow growing tumours which is associated with symptoms or signs of airway obstruction mimicking asthma. So, patients with chronic symptoms suggestive of asthma, poor response to asthma medications, and frequent exacerbations should be evaluated for endobronchial mesenchymoma.

PDF   | Full Text   DOI: 10.23937/2378-3516/1410005

Original Retrospective Study Open Access

A Retrospective Analysis of Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension to Assess the Role of Overnight Oximetry in the Diagnosis of Sleep Disordered Breathing

Neal M Patel, Vichaya Arunthari, Michael Heckman and Charles D Burger
Int J Respir Pulm Med Volume 1, Issue 1

Abstract: Background: In patients with Pulmonary Hypertension (PH), the role of overnight oximetry as means to screen for Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB) has not been well established. The aim of this study was to assess whether overnight oximetry was additive to a standard sleep questionnaire in the diagnosis of SDB. Methods: This retrospective study included 94 PH patients seen at Mayo Clinic Florida PH Center from 1992 to 2006. Analysis was performed on the following information: age, gender, body mass index, presence of hypertension, right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), presence of SDB symptoms, overnight oximetry results, and polysomnography results when available.

PDF   | Full Text   DOI: 10.23937/2378-3516/1410004

Research Article Open Access

Functional Characteristics of COPD Patients Admitted for Acute Pulmonary Embolism

Rodriguez DA, Orozco-Levi M, Miranda F, Mayoral A, Clements JA, Martinez-Llorens J, Ventin C, Bruguera J, Gea J and Molina LL
Int J Respir Pulm Med Volume 1, Issue 1

Abstract: Introduction: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a known risk factor for pulmonary embolism (PE); however, neither the clinical nor the pulmonary function characteristics are well described in COPD patients admitted for PE. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 395 patients admitted for acute PE in a tertiary hospital setting. In COPD patients, clinical characteristics and pulmonary function were compared between the survivor and non-survivor groups during a 3-month follow-up period after PE. Results: Thirty-three patients (8.3%) had previously documented diagnoses of COPD with moderate to severe airflow obstruction at least 6 months prior to the development of PE. The total number of deaths after three months of follow-up was 9 (27%) in COPD patients and 65 (17%) in patients without COPD (p = 0.03). PE was the leading cause of death in COPD. Only 15% of COPD patients had previous frequent exacerbations. The diffusion lung capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco, % predicted) was the only statistically significant variable that differed between the survivor and non-survivor groups of COPD patients (p = 0.002).

PDF   | Full Text   DOI: 10.23937/2378-3516/1410003

Editorial Open Access

A Novel Approach to Investigate Functional Exonic SNPs Associated with Lung Diseases at Post-Transcriptional Stage

Tong Zhou and Ting Wang
Int J Respir Pulm Med Volume 1, Issue 1

Abstract: Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have resulted in the identification of novel genetic loci associated with a variety of diseases and clinical phenotypes, including complex lung disease such as asthma and COPD. However, the translational utilization of these expensive datasets has been restricted by multiple reasons including limited methodology to understand the exact molecular function of these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).

PDF   | Full Text   DOI: 10.23937/2378-3516/1410002

Editorial Open Access

Should Endobronchial Ultrasound be Performed in All Patients with Suspected Sarcoidosis?

Omar Assasa, Mohamed Omballi and Fayez Kheir
Int J Respir Pulm Med Volume 1, Issue 1

Abstract: Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology that is characterized by noncaseating granuloma. Its incidence is 11 cases per 100,000 population in whites and 34 cases per 100,000 population in African Americans. Sarcoidosis most often involves the lung and intrathoracic lymph nodes but can occur in any other organ system. The most common respiratory complaints are dyspnea, shortness of breath and wheezing. However, many patients are asymptomatic and have incidental enlarged mediastinal or hilar lymhadenopathy on routine chest imaging.

PDF   | Full Text   DOI: 10.23937/2378-3516/1410001

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