Shoichi D. Takekawa
Article Type: Short Commentary | First Published: December 31, 2015
Pathology and radiology have become pivotal in the clinical practice of daily medicine. Diagnostic radiology and pathology are indeed indispensable wheels of medical practice. Clinicians achieve tentative diagnoses based on laboratory data and medical images in addition to their physical findings and patient medical history. Based on all available findings and on patient characteristics, clinicians finally decide on further therapeutic management strategies, including medical and surgical therap...
Orbital Necrobiotic Xanthogranuloma: A Case Report
Hind M. Alkatan and Abdul Elah A. Al-Abdullah
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 24, 2015
Xanthogranulomatous ocular and periocular lesions in adults have been reported in 3 main forms: adult-onset xanthogranuloma (AXG), necrobiotic xanthogranuloma (NXG), and Erdheim-Chester disease. The three forms differ in regards to laterality, systemic associations, and prognosis. NXG is a rare chronic progressive disease considered to be systemic with mostly asymptomatic internal organ involvement. Ophthalmic manifestations include conjunctival, corneal and scleral involvement. We are presentin...
Squamous Morules (Microcarcinoids) in Gastroesophageal Polyps; a Mimicker of Invasive Carcinoma
Safia N Salaria and Elizabeth Montgomery
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 30, 2015
Colorectal lesions termed squamous morules or microcarcinoids display predominantly squamous and variable endocrine differentiation and are often found in colorectal adenomas with high grade dysplasia thus mimicking invasion. Herein, we describe histopathologic, immunohistochemical classification and clinical correlation of analogous lesions in the esophagus and stomach. We identified five cases (3 men, 2 women) from November 2004-March 2013 of gastric and gastroesophageal polyps with squamous m...
Cancer Stem Cell Microenvironment in Canine Glioblastoma Development: Animal Model for Human Disease
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 30, 2015
Understanding the cancer stem cells (CSCs) role in malignancy is based on a comprehensive understanding of normal stem cells role and plasticity in maintaining the normal homeostasis or regeneration in various organ tissues. The niche microenvironment that sustains and regulates stem cells is tightly regulated by physical factors and hormonal signals. In the central nervous system (CNS) malignancy the CSCs niche is deregulated by intrinsic and extrinsic factors, which disrupt the homeostatic bal...
Liquid Biopsy: A Future Tool for Post Treatment Surveillance in Head and Neck Cancer?
Joost H Van Ginkel, Manon MH Huibers, Rob Noorlag, Remco de Bree, Robert JJ van Es and Stefan M Willems
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 30, 2015
The prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is largely based on disease stage. Despite improvements in treatment, recurrence rates are still considered high. Currently, disease progression or regression after curative treatment is monitored by clinical evaluation combined with flexible endoscopy and/or imaging....
An Uncommon Cause of Skin Discoloration: Purpura Pigmentosa Progressiva
Charles Joseph Haddad, Judella Haddad Lacle and Charles Michael Haddad
Article Type: Case report | First Published: October 04, 2015
Purpura Pigmentosa Progressiva is also known as Progressive Pigmentary Dermatitis or Schamberg's Disease. It is a disorder causing skin discoloration on the trunk and extremities, and is a lymphocytic capillaritis of unknown etiology. The disease can occur at any age. It is important to be aware of this disorder since it can mimic other diseases and problems including child and elder abuse, thrombocytopenia purpura....
Overview of Coroner's Adult Autopsies in England
Husayn Al Mahdy
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 11, 2015
This article provides an overview of coroner's autopsies in England with the aim of improving the service and hence provide accurate death certification as well as a learning experience for clinicians caring for patients. The system that has evolved has neither improved the service nor has it led to a learning experience for the clinicians. Compatibility of clinical features ante-mortem combined with post-mortem findings are lacking and involvement of the clinicians is almost non-existent. The c...
Factors Predicting Response to Neoadjuvant Therapy of Hepatic Metastasis from Colorectal Carcinoma
D. Cortes Guira,, MJ Fernandez-Acenero, Damian Garcia-Olmo and C. Pastor Idoate
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 03, 2015
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is a widely used therapeutic option for patients with resectable hepatic metastasis from colorectal carcinoma. In this setting, the intent of NAC is to reduce metastatic size and make surgery easier and/or less extensive, mostly in patients that are amenable to surgery. Several studies confirm that response to neoadjuvant therapy is indicative of a better prognosis for such patients and several methods have been proposed and validated to measure both radiological a...
Ovarian Neoplasm in a Patient with Prior Breast Carcinoma - Challenges and Pitfalls in Diagnostic Process
Elena Arabadzhieva, Sasho Bonev, Lyubomira Dimitrova, Atanas Yonkov, Dimitar Bulanov, Vesela Ivanova and Violeta Dimitrova
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 02, 2015
We present a case of 58-year-old woman who underwent bilateral adnexectomy with small bowel resection during urgent operation for an incarcerated umbilical hernia. There was a slight enlargement in both ovaries and presence of cystic formation with some papillary structures in the right one. Histologically, bilateral infiltration of tumor cells with moderate cytological and nuclear atypia and tubular, nested and cystic growth pattern was observed. The patient had a long list of co-morbidities: l...
The Optimization of Igm In-House ELISA for the Laboratory Diagnosis of Melioidosis in Malaysia
Azura Mohd Noor, Norazah Ahmad and Wan Rozita Wan Mahiyuddin
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 02, 2015
Melioidosis is a life-threatening infectious disease which can lead to high mortality and death within 48 hours if treatment is delayed. Detection of antibodies against Burkholderia pseudomallei may help in early diagnosis of melioidosis. This study was carried out to optimize an in-house ELISA for the detection of Immunoglobulin M (IgM) against B. pseudomallei in suspected acute melioidosis patients in Malaysia. Three different concentrations of crude B. pseudomallei cells antigen (0.200 mg/ml,...
On Emerging Clinical Dental Specialties and Recognition
Ronald S Brown
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: July 24, 2015
Dentistry is mainly a surgical clinical profession and dental clinicians are primarily involved in the surgical management of oral diseases and conditions. There are a few American Dental Association (ADA)-recognized non-surgical dental specialties such as Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology, Oral & Maxillofacial Radiology, and Public Health Dentistry. These non-surgical dental specialties are mainly supportive to the surgical dental specialties and general dentists. For instance, Oral & Maxillofacia...
Flow Cytometric Analysis of Cell Size in B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: Reliability and Potential Diagnostic Significance
Aaron Cotrell, Farzaneh Sayedian, Michelle Huang, Xia Chen, Ming Xie, Marc Smith and James Huang
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 13, 2015
Evaluation of lymphoma cell size is a key step in the sub classification of B-cell lymphomas. Lymphoma cells can be classified as large, small or (less commonly) medium; but recognition of large B-cells is of particular importance because of their diagnostic and prognostic significance. Lymphomas with increased large cells are often associated with more aggressive clinical course. For instance, neoplastic B-cells of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are predominately large cells....
Proficiency Assessment Mechanism for Line-Probe Assay Testing for Diagnosis of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in India
Raizada N, Sachdeva KS, Malhotra B, Thakur R, Kishore Reddy VC, Chauhan DS, Dave P, Mohammed F, Ram Das, Sharma P, Sharma SK, Wares F, Sahu S, O'Brien R, Mundade Y, Dewan PK and Paramasivan CN
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 08, 2015
GenoType MTBDRplus assay (LPA) has been endorsed by the World Health Organization for rapid screening of patients at risk of MDR-TB for an early diagnosis. A key constraint in the uptake of this technology in 2009 was the lack of LPA proficiency assessment system. To enable LPA scale-up, proficiency testing procedures were developed and implemented in India. Methods: After initial LPA training, each project site collected remnant sputum specimens from 50 smear-positive patients for anonymous LPA...
Clinical Applications of Leukocyte Morphological Parameters
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 25, 2015
Leukocyte morphological parameters, also known as cell population data (CPD), are measured by Coulter automated hematology analyzers with VCS technology. In recent years, clinical applications of CPD have been extensively investigated. The studies have demonstrated that diagnostic utility of neutrophil CPD in acute bacterial infection, particularly their roles in differentiating post-surgical bacterial infection versus systemic inflammatory response syndrome. ...
Why the Hypocholesteremia must not be Neglected?
Article Type: Editorial | First Published: February 17, 2015
During the last ten years studies on the role of cholesterol in the development and progression of cancer process and observations of severe hypocholesterolemia in patients with solid tumours and hematologic malignancies have been extended. Th cancer cell incorporates cholesterol with avidity and reduces its serum level. In normal cells, cholesterol binds sphingomyelin with very long-chained saturated fatty acids to form membrane lipid raft that acts as platform for proteins and receptors....